A to Z.

I came across this and thought it would go nicely with my gallery survival guide I wrote last week. An A to Z of things all B Moders should know.

Archival: Refers to the way a negative or photographic print is processed - usually meaning that the negative and print have been washed long enough to eliminate chemicals which could later cause discoloration or other types of degradation, and that a print is additionally made on a fiber-based paper. Also refers to materials used for matting, storing, and protecting photographic prints and negatives from the deterioration caused by chemical reactions.

Artist's proof: A print which is made for the artist's use and is not included in the numbering of the edition.

"C" print or color coupler print: Negative to positive printing process. A print that is made when photosensitive paper is exposed to light that passes through a negative film.

Contact print: A print which is made by placing the negative directly on top of the paper, thus producing a print the same size as the negative.

Digital file: A computer file which contains digital information, including a digital image.

Digital image: An image made up of light-sensitive units called pixels that can be captured in a number of ways, including with a digital camera or a scanner.

Digital print: A print that is made from a digital file. Digital files can be printed on high quality ink jet printers (IRIS, Epson) or on traditional photographic papers using a laser printer (KristÕl).

Digitally re-mastered print: Refers to a high quality reproduction that is made from an original print or a copy negative. It involves scanning the image, correcting any imperfections, and returning the work to how it originally looked. One of the benefits of this digital technique is that the work is very finely articulated, so much so, that when it is enlarged, there are often details present that were not visible in the original print.

Emulsion: A light-sensitive compound that is usually suspended in gelatin and applied to films and papers.

Giclée® print: Refers to a print produced using a combination of computerized imaging and high quality ink jet printing.

KRIST÷L: A fine art archival print process that incorporates the technologies of the Heidelberg Tango drum scanner with the Cymbolic Sciences LightJet 5900 laser printer. Printed on one of three Fuji Crystal Archive papers, these prints offer vivid color and sharpness with an estimated life of 60 years or more.

Ilfochrome/Cibachrome print: Positive to positive color printing process. A print that is made when photosensitive paper is exposed to light that passes through a positive film (i.e. slide).

IRIS: One of several digital printers that prints from a digital file. The IRIS is a high quality ink jet printer which lays millions of blood-cell sized drops of ink on a substrate up to 40 x 50 inches large. The inks used by artists in IRIS printing are archival and, depending on the paper, can last up to 75 years without noticeable fading.

Modern photographic print: Contemporary print made from an old original negative. Sometimes when a modern print is made, both the date of exposure and the date the print was made are noted.

Negative: An image in which the highlights, colors, and tones are the reverse of those in the actual subject. The film negative can be used to make a positive print.

Palladium/Platinum print: A palladium print is a print formed by exposing a negative in contact with paper sensitized with a palladium (a metal) compound, and developing the exposed paper in potassium oxalate. This process makes an archival print that lasts far longer than any other type of photographic print. Another prominent characteristic is the wide tonal range that the process produces. The ultra-fine mid-tones can be represented in 25 tones from white to black. Because the process does not require a gelatin surface, the emulsion soaks into the paper, thus forcing the paper to become an integral part of the final product.

Polaroid SX-70: One of many instant cameras, the SX-70 uses a process called dye diffusion in which a chemical developing pack and three layers of emulsion are sandwiched together with a backing layer. After the image is exposed, the pack is broken by pulling the photograph through rollers at the front of the camera. Development of the image takes place within a couple of minutes.

Print edition: The limited number of prints that will be made from a negative, transparency, or digital file. Usually this number is noted either on the front or back of a photograph, using a fraction-like number. The top number represents the sequential position of the print (first, second, third, etc.) while the bottom number represents the total number in the edition.

Resolution: A term used in both traditional and digital photography to describe the quality of the image. A high resolution digital file has 300 or more pixels per inch. Film is considered to have high resolution when it has a slow asa (speed) thus having fine grain.

Silver print: A term encompassing all photographic prints made on a paper sensitized with silver salts. Most black and white prints are in this category.

Slide: Usually a 35mm, mounted positive transparency made from any number of "chrome" films. The ilfochrome (positive to positive) process can be used to print a slide, or, if a "C" print renders the desired effect, an internegative of the image needs to be made first.

Substrate: The material on which an image is printed, usually paper.

Traditional photographic processes: The processes that use film and emulsion-based photographic papers.

Transparency: a film positive.

Vintage Photographic Print: An image printed around the same time as the negative was made.

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